Welcome to the glossary. Here you will find all the correct explanations
for difficult words that you might come across during the lessons.
It also includes a list of health centres where you can go to find
more information, youth-friendly services and counselling.
The termination of a pregnancy. This may happen on its own (spontaneous
abortion or 'miscarriage') or it can be the result of a medical procedure
(induced abortion). In countries where abortion is illegal, like Uganda,
abortion services can be dangerous. If it is not performed by a medical
doctor or gynaecologist, it is often done in a rushed and unhygienic
manner that puts women's health at great risk. An abortion is safe
when it is performed by professional, trained and well-equipped service
providers in a hygienic setting.
To avoid doing something. For example, you can decide to abstain from
all sexual activities or only from sexual intercourse or from drugs
or alcohol. Not engaging in those sexual activities that can put a
person at risk of infections, including STIs and HIV, or pregnancy.
A skin problem experienced mainly during puberty and marked by a lot
of pimples or spots, especially in the face.
Adolescence is the period of transition between puberty and adulthood.
Adolescence is roughly considered to be the period between 12 and
19 years of age. It refers to the time between the beginning of sexual
maturation (puberty) and adulthood. During this period, adolescents
are expected to become capable of adult behaviour and response, and
autonomous decision-making. Adolescents experience not only physical
growth and change but also emotional, psychological, social and mental
change and growth.
Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome, a fatal disease in which the
human immune system is weakened by the HIV virus and cannot guard
the individual against any disease-causing organisms, even those that
can be treated with drugs. AIDS is the final stage of an infection
with the HIV virus (Human Immuno-deficiency Virus), which is transmitted
through blood and bodily fluids (semen and vaginal fluids). AIDS in
itself is not the cause of death. People who die of AIDS actually
die of other infections to which the body does not have any resistance
as a result of its weakened immune system.
Sexual intercourse not via the vagina, but via the anus of the partner
(male or female). Anal intercourse without a condom is an extremely
high-risk behaviour for the spread of HIV and STIs. Blood vessels
in the anal opening may rupture and blood may mingle with semen of
a partner with STI or HIV.
A health condition in which the blood is 'weak and thin'. It is often
caused by lack of oxygen in body cells and organs, which can result
in tiredness, pale gums, tongue, eyelids, palms and soles of the feet,
and lack of energy and fainting.
The period before birth. For example, antenatal care is the care needed
by a woman throughout her pregnancy.
The opening of the body where food waste (faeces) comes out.
Soaps that contain a medical substance that prevents the growth of
bacteria. Antiseptics are used to prevent infections.
To state something clearly, confidently and strongly without being
hostile, rude or nasty. To assert yourself is to stand up and speak
out for yourself.
Feeling or opinion about something or someone, or a way of behaving
that follows from this feeling or opinion.
To freely determine your own decisions and course in life. This implies
freedom of thought, expression and action. Our autonomy is limited
by the right of others to have autonomy. It is a rights-based concept.
contracted from alpha‑methyl phenethyl amine) is a potent central nervous system stimulant of the phenethyl amine class that is used in the health treatment.
A birth control method that provides a physical barrier between the
sperm cells in semen and the egg. Examples of barrier contraceptive
methods include condoms, diaphragms, foam, sponges, spermicides and
cervical caps. Except for condoms, barrier methods do not prevent
STIs, including HIV.
Strike (a person or an animal) repeatedly and violently so as to hurt or injure them, usually with an implement such as a club or whip.
The manner of conducting yourself; the response of individuals or
groups to their environment.
The passageway - made up of the cervix, vagina and vulva - through
which the baby travels during birth.
A person who is sexually attracted to both genders.
A sexual orientation in which an individual can enjoy emotional and
sexual relationships with people of both genders.
Demand money from (a person) in return for not revealing compromising or injurious information.
A small pocket of fluid within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction), burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection. Most blisters are filled with a clear fluid called serum or plasma.However, blisters can be filled with blood (known as blood blisters) or with pus (if they become infected).
A powerful stroke with a hand, weapon, or hard object.
Caesarean section (or C-section)
A medical operation to take the baby out of the uterus by making a
cut in the woman's abdomen (belly). This operation is performed when
a woman is not able to deliver the baby through the vagina and vulva.
A traditional method of natural family planning (also known as rhythm
method). The fertile phase (the days around the ovulation when an
mature egg cell is present) of the menstrual cycle must be determined
by calculating the length of at least six previous menstrual cycles.
To prevent pregnancy, this method requires not having sexual intercourse
during the calculated fertile days of a woman's menstrual cycle. When
used alone, the calendar method is very unreliable, especially for
girls and women with irregular menstrual cycles, and may be overly
restrictive for some couples. This method does not prevent STIs, including
A yeast infection in the vagina. Symptoms of candidiasis are: increased
discharge from the vagina and itching. It is an infection but not
To touch or kiss someone in a gentle and loving way.
A small, plastic or rubber cup that covers the cervix to prevent sperm
cells from entering the uterus and thus meeting the egg to unite (one
of the so-called barrier methods). It is used with spermicide. It
is very effective at preventing pregnancy and must be prescribed and
instructed by a health care provider. It does not prevent STIs, including
The neck/opening of the uterus, that extends and opens into the vagina.
The sexual and emotional violation of a child by an adult, through
verbal, visual, psycho-social or physical acts, abusing the relationship
of power and authority that adults have over children.
Any representation, by whatever means, of a child engaged in real
or simulated explicit sexual activities or any representation of the
sexual parts of a child, with the aim of presenting an image for sexual
An STI caused by bacteria that often has no symptoms. If symptoms
occur, they may include burning during urination, discharge and bleeding
during intercourse for girls. For guys, common symptoms include pain
during urination and a watery discharge. Chlamydia can cause infertility
and ectopic pregnancy if it is not treated early. Because Chlamydia
is a bacterial infection, it can easily be treated with antibiotics.
In a man: when the loose fold of skin (foreskin) at the end of a man's
penis is removed.
In a woman: when parts or all of a woman's genitals are removed, also
known as FGM.
The small, pea-shaped organ in a woman's genitals that is a centre
of sensation and sexual pleasure. It is located at the top of the
vulva, between the inner lips, just in front of the opening of the
The act of convincing by force of authority.
A very unreliable contraceptive method whereby a guy withdraws his
penis from his partner's vagina just before ejaculation (also know
as pulling out or withdrawal). It is not recommended at all. This
method does not protect against STIs, including HIV.
The process in which a person acknowledges and discloses being gay,
lesbian or transgender.
Beginning of pregnancy, when the male sperm cells fertilizes the female
A sheath of latex rubber worn on the erect penis during sexual intercourse
(also called rubber or protector). The condom must be put on before
the penis touches any part of the woman's external genitals to prevent
the mixing of semen with either the vaginal, oral or anal regions.
It is the most effective and safe contraceptive method to prevent
pregnancy, HIV, and other STIs.
Methods used to prevent pregnancy (also known as birth control or
family planning methods).
A pair of glands in the male reproductive system, responsible for
secreting the fluid that makes up pre-ejaculate (pre-cum).
Sexual encounters that take place entirely on the Internet, often
commonly known as marijuana, is a preparation of the cannabis plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug and as medicine.
Cocaine (INN) (benzoyl methyl ecgonine)
an ecgonine derivative) is a tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant.
Rape committed by a boyfriend. For example, when a boyfriend forces
his girlfriend to have sex against her will, this is considered date
A dome-shaped rubber cup (also called cervical cap) used in conjunction
with spermicidal gel/cream that covers the opening to the cervix and
uterus to prevent sperm cells from entering the uterus. It is effective
at preventing pregnancy but does not protect against STIs, including
Refers to using two condoms instead of one. Using two condoms is generally
not recommended because they can rub against each other and tear.
The best policy is to use one latex condom, correctly and consistently.
The release of semen containing sperm cells (if the man has not been
sterilized) from a man's penis. If the man is sterilized, the semen
does not contain sperm cells. Rhythmic contractions in males that
propel the semen out of the penis in spurts.
The term used between the second and eighth week of pregnancy to refer
to the mass of cells that will become a foetus and, after birth, a
A contraceptive method that can be used to prevent pregnancy after
unprotected sexual intercourse, for example, if the condom broke or
slipped. To be effective in preventing pregnancy, emergency contraception
must be taken within 72 hours of unprotected sexual intercourse. Emergency
contraception does not cause abortion and does not prevent STIs, including
The lining of the uterus that grows to receive a fertilized egg, and
if there is no fertilized egg, is shed as menstruation.
A coiled tube through which sperm cells leave the testes, also used
for storage of sperm cells.
When the penis is being filled with blood and becomes hard and stiff,
either as a result of feelings of sexual excitement or spontaneously.
The areas of the male and female body that are specially sensitive
and capable of arousing sexual desire and pleasure.
Sexually stimulating, pertaining to sexual love or sensation.
The compulsive act of exposing the genitals, in public or to a specific
person, for the purpose of sexual arousal and gratification.
The two tubes that lead from the female ovaries to the uterus (womb).
After an egg has been released from one of the ovaries, it travels
down these tubes to the uterus and can be fertilized by a sperm cell.
Family planning means planning how to improve the quality of family
life. It includes:
1. taking decisions on regulating and spacing childbirth;
2. choosing suitable contraceptive methods;
3. helping childless couples to have children;
4. counselling of both parents and would-be parents;
5. developing the necessary parental, social and family budgeting
A polyurethane pouch that has two flexible rings on either end. One
ring is inserted into the vagina and the other ring stays outside
the vagina. The ring helps to hold the female condom in place. They
can be purchased without a prescription and can be used during anal
intercourse as well. Female condoms can be inserted before starting
the foreplay, and should not be used at the same time as male condoms.
With perfect use, they can be 95% effective in preventing pregnancy
and can also prevent some STIs.
Female genital cutting
Female secondary sexual characteristics
Physical attributes (other than the sexual organs) that distinguish
females from males, caused by oestrogen during puberty. For example,
menstrual periods in females, growth of breasts and pubic hair, broadening
of the hip bones and deposition of fat in the buttocks and thighs
and under the skin.
Acting, or having qualities, which are traditionally considered to
be suitable for a woman.
The ability to create a baby. Both men and women can be fertile.
The ability to reproduce.
FGM (Female Genital Mutilation)
A traditional practice in which all or part of the female genitals
are removed (also called Female Circumcision). This practice has negative
health consequences and is considered by many people to be a violation
of girls' and women's rights.
To behave as if (sexually) attracted to someone, although not seriously.
The term used to refer to a baby in the uterus (womb) from the ninth
week of pregnancy until birth.
To touch gently and in a loving way, or to touch in a sexual way.
All of the sexual activities that people might do to get each other
sexually aroused either before or instead of intercourse.
A retractable area of sensitive skin that covers and protects the
head (glans) of the penis. Some men have this skin removed soon after
birth or in puberty, during a procedure called male circumcision.
To take care of a child, usually for a limited time, without being
the child's biological parents.
A person who you know well and who you like a lot, but who is usually
not a member of your family. Someone who is not an enemy and who you
Being sexually and romantically attracted to people of the same gender
(also called homosexuality). Typically refers to men who are attracted
to other men.
Refers to widely shared ideas and expectations (social and cultural
norms) concerning women and men. These include ideas about how women
and men should behave in various situations.
Gender equality means equal treatment of women and men in laws, policies
and behaviours, and equal access of women and men to resources and
services within families, education, health services, communities
and society at large.
The particular economic and social roles that a society considers
appropriate for women and men. Men are mainly identified with productive
roles that tend to be sequential, while women have more roles: domestic
responsibilities, productive work and community activities, which
often have to be carried out simultaneously. Gender roles and responsibilities
can vary between cultures and can change over time. In almost all
societies, women's roles tend to be undervalued.
The external sexual body parts. In females, these include the labia
majora (outer lips), labia minora (inner lips), clitoris, mons pubis
(a soft mound covered with pubic hair) and vestibule (where the urinary
and vaginal opening are found). For males, the genitals are the penis,
the scrotum and the mons pubis.
A sexually transmitted infection that is caused by the Human Papilloma
Virus (HPV) that causes small, painless bumps around and in the genitals,
anus and/or mouth.
Cells in the skin that perform a certain function. For example, sweat
glands produce sweat or perspiration, which help to cool the body.
The head of the penis.
An STI that causes discharge from the vagina or penis, also referred
to as 'the clap' or 'the drip'. Symptoms in men include a discharge
from the penis, pain during urination and increased need to urinate.
For women, there may be a discharge from the vagina, but many women
(and some men too) will not have any symptoms. Gonorrhoea is caused
by a bacterium and can be easily treated and cured with antibiotics.
A medical doctor specialized in women's reproductive health care.
An STI caused by a virus that may result in serious liver damage and
sometimes even death. Infection occurs through contact with infected
blood, semen, vaginal fluids or saliva. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting,
headache, fever, dark urine and jaundice. It is the only STD for which
there is a vaccine to prevent infection.
Sexual attraction to members of the opposite sex (men being attracted
to women and women being attracted to men).
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus that causes AIDS (Acquired Immuno
Deficiency Syndrome). The virus weakens a person's immune system so
that the body cannot fight off common infections. HIV is transmitted
after exposure to an infected person's blood, semen, vaginal fluids
or breast milk.
A blood sample is taken from the arm with a sterile disposable needle.
Then the blood sample will be examined on the presence of antibodies
towards the HIV virus. If this test is done directly after unsafe
sex, it has to be repeated three months after the unprotected sexual
intercourse, as you can be infected for up to three months without
yet having enough antibodies to show up in the blood test. These three
months are referred to as the window period.
HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. The term 'HIV/AIDS' is often used
because infection with HIV eventually leads to AIDS. A person has
AIDS (in contrast to just being infected with HIV) when his/her immune
system gets so weak it can no longer fight off common infections and
illness and he/she gets ill.
Irrational fear, hatred or prejudice toward people who are homosexual
(gay or lesbian).
Sexual and emotional attraction between people of the same sex. Also
known as gay for men and lesbian for women.
Another type of contraceptive methods (as opposed to barrier methods)
that work by changing a woman's body chemistry. Certain chemical substances
in hormonal contraceptive methods mimic the oestrogen and/or progestin
hormones that females naturally produce. The contraceptives that include
oestrogen prevent the release of an egg from the ovaries, while the
methods containing progestin make the uterus an unfriendly environment
for sperm and implantation. Hormonal contraceptive methods do not
prevent STIs, including HIV.
Natural chemicals that are produced by the body and that serve as
messengers that tell the body how and when to do things, grow, for
example. Hormones also play a role in sexual growth, development and
reproduction. Examples include oestrogen and testosterone.
To hold someone or something close to your body with your arms, usually
to show that you like, love or value them.
Make (someone) feel ashamed and foolish by injuring their dignity and self-respect, especially publicly.
The practice of keeping clean.
A delicate piece of tissue inside the vagina. Because the hymen can
be stretched or torn during sexual intercourse, the hymen is seen
as a sign that a girl is virgin. However, some girls are born with
no hymen at all. For others, the hymen can become stretched or torn
during sports or for no obvious reason at all. Therefore, not having
a hymen is not necessarily a sign that a girl is not a virgin.
Heroin (diacetylmorphine or morphine dictate
also known as diamorphine and commonly known by its street names, it is an opioid analgesic originally synthesized by C.R. Alder Wright in 1874.
Who a person is, or the qualities of a person or group which make
them different from others.
When a fertilized egg attaches itself to the lining or wall or the
uterus (womb). This is the beginning of a pregnancy.
A (hormonal) contraceptive method in which six small tubes containing
hormones are put under the skin in a women's upper arm by a specially
trained health worker (for example, Norplant). Implants prevent pregnancy
for about five years, but can be removed sooner if the woman wants
to become pregnant. They do not prevent STIs, including HIV.
Inability of a man to get and/or sustain an erection. More than 95%
of impotence arises from psychological factors, such as anxiety about
sexual performance, guilt, sexual conflicts or emotional relationship
problems. But it can also be caused by to organic factors, such as
spinal chord injury, diabetes, drug use, age or an insufficiency of
Sexual contact between members of the immediate family.
Inability to create a baby or to reproduce, which can be temporary.
When permanent, it is called sterility. Both men and women can be
Vaginal intercourse is the act when the erect penis enters the female
vagina and, after reaching a climax of excitement, ejects semen into
the vagina. Sexual intercourse can be solely for pleasure or for conception.
Feelings of closeness and trust with another person.
The IUD (Intra-Uterine Device) or coil is a contraceptive method,
mostly used by older women. It is inserted into the uterus by a skilled
health worker to prevent pregnancy. It prevents the fertilized female
egg from settling in the uterine wall. The most common IUDs are Copper
T and Lippes Loop. It does not prevent STIs, including HIV.
Also known as icterus is a yellowish pigmentation(coloring) of the skin,
The inner and outer folds of skin that protect the vagina, also called
'lips'. Labia majora: the larger outer lips of the female external
genitalia. Labia minora: the smaller, inner lips of the external female
The work that a woman's body does during childbirth to push the baby
out of the body.
A woman who is sexually and romantically attracted to other women.
A term that refers to someone's sex drive, the desire for sexual union
During the body's preparation for pregnancy, the endometrium in the
uterus will grow thicker. This is called the lining: it grows and
is shed during the menstrual cycle.
To have strong feelings of affection for another adult and be romantically
and sexually attracted to them, or to feel great affection for a friend
or person in your family; strong feelings of attraction towards, and
affection for, another adult, or great affection for a friend or family
member; a person that you feel attracted to.
A cream or substance used to make dry surfaces wet and slippery. Lubricants
are often used on condoms to protect the condom from tearing. All
are water-based and safe to use with condoms.
The natural body fluid that appears in the woman's vagina when she
is sexually stimulated and without which a woman would find penetration
A strong feeling of sexual attraction and desire towards another person.
When the loose fold of sensitive skin (foreskin) at the end of a man's
penis is removed at birth or later in puberty. This is often done
for hygienic and/or religious reasons.
Male secondary sexual characteristics
Physical attributes (other than the sexual organs) that distinguish
males from females, caused by the testosterone hormones during puberty.
For example, growth of bones, muscles, genitals, and bodily, pubic
and facial hair, lower voice and tougher skin.
Handle or control (a tool, mechanism, etc.), typically in a skillful manner: "he manipulated the dials".
Socially constructed patterns of how men are expected to behave.
Touching your own genitals and body parts to achieve sexual pleasure.
It may or may not result in an orgasm. It is not harmful.
The beginning of menstruation; the first menstrual period.
Menstruation (or menstrual period, monthly period)
Periodical cycle in women in which an egg is released from the ovary
once a month, and the uterine wall is thickened to prepare for the
fertilized egg to settle in it. If fertilization does not occur, then
the uterine lining is shed with discharge of blood after 3-6 days.
Menstruation starts during adolescence, mostly between the ages of
10-15, and ends between the ages of 45-55.
The monthly process in the female body, which involves the release
of an egg, the preparation of the body for pregnancy and the release
of the lining of the uterus if no pregnancy occurs. In a 28-day menstrual
cycle, the egg leaves the ovary approximately 14 days after the first
day of a woman's period.
Spontaneous discharge through the vagina of a developing foetus before
it is able to survive.
The state of being committed emotionally and/or sexually to only one
When partners either touch their own genitals while they are together,
or touch each other's genitals at the same time. This may or may not
result in an orgasm and is not harmful.
A piece of soft, absorbent material worn by a woman between her legs
during her period (also known as sanitary towels).
Natural Family Planning
A form of birth control (also known as the rhythm method) in which
a woman charts her cervical mucus and daily temperatures with a basal
thermometer to determine the time of ovulation and then does not have
intercourse on or around the time of ovulation. The effectiveness
of this method depends on how regular a woman's cycle is and her ability
to avoid intercourse or use a barrier method (such as condom or diaphragm)
when she is ovulating. It is not very effective in preventing pregnancies
and does not prevent STIs, including HIV.
The tips of the breasts on the male and female chest, sensitive to
touch and temperature.
Also called wet dreams. Ejaculation of semen during sleep.
A hormone produced by the ovaries which helps to regulate the menstrual
cycle or conception, and which causes secondary sexual characteristics
Using the mouth and/or tongue to stimulate the genitals of a partner.
A highly pleasurable, climactic response during sex, the peak of sexual
pleasure, which is the result of a complex interaction of physical,
emotional and hormonal factors. In men, it is usually at the time
of ejaculation. 'Multiple orgasms' means having several orgasms within
a short period of time.
The release of an egg from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube.
It usually occurs 14 days before the next menstrual period.
Ovum, ova (plural)
A female egg. A cell which, when released from a woman's ovary, may
be fertilized by a man's sperm cell.
A test in which some cells are taken from the cervix and examined.
This test is used to detect early signs of cervical cancer.
The male sex organ, also used to pass urine as well as semen.
A contraceptive method by avoiding having sexual intercourse during
the days on which a woman is fertile (see also natural family planning).
It is not very effective in preventing pregnancies and does not prevent
STIs, including HIV.
If two people are petting, they are kissing and touching each other
in a sexual way. Heavy petting: when two people kiss, hold and touch
each other in a sexual way but do not have sexual intercourse.
A hormonal contraceptive method that prevents the monthly release
of an egg from the woman's ovaries (ovulation). The pill must be taken
every day, except for the 'stop-week', in which a woman does not take
the pill and a menstruation will occur. This contraceptive method
does not prevent STIs, including HIV. If you have forgotten to take
the pill: keep on taking the pill for the rest of the month until
you start with the next series of pills. For protection against pregnancy,
abstinence or another contraceptive method (condom) needs to be used,
because protection by the pill during the actual period is not certain
when you have missed a pill.
Verbal or visual material or acts intended for sexual stimulation.
Pornography often embodies violence, coercion, discrimination, force
or brutality on women, men, children or animals in sexual acts, and
represents them in a degrading position. Pornography very often does
not present a realistic image of sex.
A small amount of fluid at the tip of a man's penis as it becomes
erect (also called pre-cum). This small drop is called pre-ejaculation
fluid because it appears before ejaculation. It can contain sperm
cells and can cause pregnancy.
A test to determine whether or not a woman is pregnant. Pregnancy
tests come in two varieties: a urine test and a blood test. The urine
test is by far the most widely used and can easily be used by every
woman within 10-14 days after unprotected sexual intercourse.
Early ejaculation when a man cannot recognize that he is about to
ejaculate and, therefore, is unable to control it.
Medical services a woman receives during her pregnancy. The purpose
of prenatal care is to monitor the health of the pregnant mother and
foetus to ensure proper growth and development for both. Prenatal
care can also detect birth defects at an early stage of pregnancy.
The hormone primarily responsible for maintaining a pregnancy.
One of the many substances found in food such as meat, cheese, fish
or eggs that is necessary for the body to grow and be strong.
Someone who is promiscuous has many sexual partners; the opposite
Providing sexual acts in exchange for payment.
Puberty refers to the onset of sexual maturation (girls age 8-10,
boys age 10-12). Puberty is the period when the child experiences
physical, hormonal and sexual changes and becomes capable of reproduction.
It is associated with rapid growth and the appearance of secondary
sexual characteristics. Adolescence is the period of transition between
puberty and adulthood.
The hairs that grows in the genital area or on private parts.
A parasite that lives in a person's pubic hair causing intense itching.
It can be sexually transmitted. It can be cured with anti-lice medicated
shampoo and body wash.
This is an unreliable method of birth control whereby a guy pulls
his penis out of his partner's vagina just before ejaculation (also
known as withdrawal or coitus interruptus). It is not recommended,
but it is better than not using any method of birth control. This
method does not protect against STIs and HIV.
Forced sexual intercourse that takes place against a person's will.
Females and males can be raped, but rape victims are mostly female.
It must be considered as an act of sexual violence.
See Natural Family Planning.
Being responsible about sex. Displaying sexual behaviour that reduces
your chances of getting or spreading a sexually transmitted infection,
getting pregnant or getting a girl pregnant. Usually, this means using
a condom during intercourse. It also means that both partners feel
safe and that no force is used. Safer instead of safe recognizes that
no sexual act is completely safe or risk-free.
A sexually transmitted infection that is caused by a mite (which is
a kind of insect) that burrows under the skin causing intense itching
and the formation of pus. Scabies can be cured by using medicated
shampoo and body wash.
The thin-walled, soft pouch of tissue containing the testicles. It
regulates and maintains proper temperature (a little lower than body
temperature) for sperm cell production. Commonly called 'balls', 'nuts'
The action of keeping something secret or the state of being kept secret.
An awareness and understanding of your own being, feelings and emotions.
A person's sense of his or her own worth and value. Feeling good about
yourself, respecting yourself and trusting your capabilities.
A sticky, milky white fluid that leaves a man's penis when he ejaculates,
containing reproductive cells called sperms cells.
See Cowper's glands.
A person's gender
Sexual activities with oneself or another person, such as masturbation,
petting and vaginal, anal or oral intercourse.
Any type of unwanted sexual contact, touching or fondling.
Any type of unwanted sexual attention, such as unpleasant sexual comments
or physical gestures.
Sexual preference (heterosexual, homosexual or bisexual) for a member
of the opposite sex, the same sex, or both, for sexual satisfaction.
Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses
sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure,
intimacy and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed
in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviours,
practices, roles and relationships. While sexuality can include all
of these dimensions, not all of them are always experienced or expressed.
Sexuality is influenced by the interaction of biological, psychological,
social, economic, political, cultural, ethical, legal, historical
and religious and spiritual factors.
The long part of the penis below the head (glans) of the penis.
A white lubricating substance under the foreskin of the penis. Smegma
helps the foreskin to slide back smoothly over the glands at the head
of the penis and the clitoris. If the foreskin is too tight, exercise
may help to loosen it somewhat. If this does not help, medical help
is required. Hygiene is very important: if the genitals are not cleaned
regularly, smegma becomes a smelly, white, cheesy substance.
The integration, and degree and type of integration, shown by a society or group with people and their neighbors.It refers to the ties in a society - social relations - that bind people to one another.
A plastic or metal device that is used by a physician or gynaecologist
to hold the walls of the vagina open during a pelvic examination or
other medical procedure so that the cervix is visible.
The male's reproductive cells. These are tiny cells, produced in the
testicles beginning at puberty and normally continuing well into a
man's 70s, which can fertilize a woman's egg, leading to pregnancy.
When a male ejaculates, between two to seven million sperm cells leave
Spermicide is a contraceptive method. It is a slippery cream or gel
that kills sperm cells. It comes in a variety of forms, including
gel, cream, foam, suppositories and film, which can be purchased in
most drug or grocery stores without a prescription. Typically, it
is used together with another method like a diaphragm or condoms.
You can also purchase condoms that are already lubricated with spermicide.
The most commonly eaten food in a country or community, which forms
the bulk of the total calorie supply, like potatoes, rice, maize,
sorghum, matoke and cassava.
A permanent contraception method for either males or females. It is
done through a surgical procedure, mostly in older people who do not
wish to have anymore children. It provides no protection against STIs
The permanent inability of men and/or women to conceive a child.
Sexually Transmitted Infections. Formerly known as STDs or venereal
diseases (VD). Infections that are passed from one person to another
through sexual contact and are caused by bacteria, viruses or other
parasites. Gonorrhoea, syphilis and HIV are some examples of STIs.
An STI that causes small sores in the genital area. Later stages are
marked by fever, headaches and pain in the bones and muscles. Syphilis
is caused by a bacterium and can be easily cured with antibiotics.
Small hard piece of cotton that is put inside the vagina to absorb
menstrual blood as it leaves the body, used instead of napkins. A
string is attached to the tampon so that it can be easily removed
from the vagina. For hygienic and health reasons, tampons have to
be changed regularly.
Also called testes, or balls, these are the male gonads, located in
the scrotum, under the penis. They produce the male sex hormone, testosterone,
from birth, and the male sex cells, sperm cells, from puberty onwards.
The male hormone produced in a man's body, regulating man's fertility
and causing male secondary sexual characteristics.
A statement of an intention to inflict pain, injury, damage, or other aggressive action on someone in revenge for something done or not...
A sexually transmitted infection that is caused by an organism that
lives in the lining of the vaginal walls and causes an odorous, foamy
and irritating discharge. Trichomoniasis, or Trich, can be passed
between sexual partners and can be easily cured with antibiotics.
A surgical contraceptive method in which a female's fallopian tubes
are cut to prevent ova (eggs) from entering the uterus. A woman will
continue to menstruate when she has had a tubal ligation. It is a
permanent procedure and is also referred to as female sterilization
or 'getting tubes tied'. Similar to its male version, vasectomy, it
provides no protection against STIs or HIV.
Severe emotional shock and pain caused by an extremely upsetting experience
or a severe injury, usually caused by a violent attack or an accident.
Sexual intercourse without any protection against pregnancy or STIs,
The tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. In women,
its end is between the vaginal opening and the clitoris. In men, the
opening, through which semen is also released, is at the tip of the
The muscular organ inside a woman's belly in which the foetus develops
during pregnancy. Also called the womb.
The canal leading from the vulva to the uterus in females. The vagina
has great elasticity, allowing a penis to be inserted for reproduction
and giving birth to a baby. During sexual excitement, a fluid is secreted
by the walls of vagina that act as a lubricant during intercourse.
During menstruation, the blood is released through the vagina.
The discharge of fluid that comes out of a woman's vagina. Strangely
coloured and bad smelling discharge may indicate an infection.
Beliefs held by one person or a group of people. Values shape people's
opinions, attitudes and actions, as well as their ways of thinking
and are often influenced by a person's family, religion, culture and
The tube through which sperm cells travel from the testicles to the
A minor surgical procedure in which a man's vas deferens are cut and
tied, as a permanent contraceptive method. It is a permanent procedure.
After a man has had a vasectomy, he will ejaculate semen that does
not contain sperm cells. Similar to its female version, tubal ligation,
it provides no protection against STIs or HIV.
While there is no set definition, it often means a girl or a boy who
has never had sexual intercourse.
The state of being a virgin: a social concept in which refraining
from sexual intercourse till marriage is greatly valued. The concept
of virginity is loaded with double standards against women: women
are often expected to preserve their virginity till marriage though
men can be implicitly encouraged to lose their virginity, mostly without
blame or prejudice.
A group of natural substances that are necessary in certain amounts
for the body's growth and good health.
The external female genitals: the labia majora and minora, the mons
pubis and the clitoris.
Is generally a small, rough growth, typically on a human's hands or feet but often other locations, that can resemble a cauliflower or a solid blister. They are caused by a viral infection. There are as many as 10 varieties of warts, the most common considered to be mostly harmless. It is possible to get warts from others; they are contagious and usually enter the body in an area of broken skin.They typically disappear after a few months but can last for years and can recur.
The release of semen (ejaculation) during sleep. Also known as Nocturnal
emission, it is common during puberty.
The time between the moment when HIV enters a person's body and the
moment when testing can detect the antibodies to HIV (3 to 6 months).
During this window period, a person may test negative, even though
he/she is infected with HIV and hence can infect other people.
A highly unreliable method of birth control that occurs when a guy
pulls his penis out of his partner's vagina just before ejaculation,
also known as 'pulling out' or 'coitus interruptus'. It is not recommended
at all, but it is better than not using any method of birth control.
This method does not protect against STIs, including HIV.
Another term for uterus.
An infection that is caused by an overgrowth of the naturally occurring
yeast in a woman's vagina. Symptoms can include itching, skin irritation,
redness, white and lumpy discharge and burning during urination. The
infection can be cured by using an anti-fungal medication, which can
be bought in a drug store. Wearing cotton, loose-fitting underwear
and keeping the area around the vagina dry can help prevent this infection.
A yeast infection is not an STI.
Development Expert Center